Name of the Student : Haitham Kh. All-Halih
Name of the supervisor/s : Dr. Nidal Mahmoud
Title of the thesis :

Characterization of Household Wastewater Streams as a Tool for Pollution Control.

Abstract :  

Palestine, a country of arid or semi arid climate, suffers from water scarcity, which can be a bottleneck in future development of the country. Needless to say, speaking about water shortage is meaningless as long as the available high quality water resources are polluted. On one hand, the disposal of untreated wastewaters is a major threat of ground water pollution, the main source of potable water in Palestine. On the other hand, concentrated human wastes are diluted with large amounts of drinking water in order to transport the wastes from the site of production to the site of treatment/disposal. In many of the Palestinian villages, camps and urban areas, hardly any sanitation infrastructures have been implemented yet. Sensibly, for those places, the separation of black and grey wastewater at the household and the onsite treatment of those waste streams is a rational option.

On-site sanitation has so far not been investigated especially under Palestine condition, where domestic wastewater is characterized by high strength and seasonal temperature fluctuation. Mahmoud et al.(2003) claimed that high COD content of wastewater in Palestine and other countries in the Middle East, like Jordan, is not only due to low water consumption, but also due to people’s habits. The reason of the extremely high concentration of pollution in Palestine is under studying.

The main objective of this research was to increase the knowledge on the quantity and quality of the various household wastewater streams. Formulating of innovative concepts for on-site sanitation, that enables the maximization of by products reuse, i.e. wastewater agricultural reuse, energy and nutrients. Those concepts will be basis for alteration of Palestinian household sanitation paradigm to more sustainable practices. Finally, formulating concepts which enable the reduction of the net water use by reusing treated grey water.

The results obtained revealed that domestic wastewater of the five studied houses (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) are of high strength classified as a strong domestic type due to high concentration of pollutants like COD, BOD, phosphorous, ammonia and Fecal coliform. Toilet and kitchen sink wastewater are the main sources of pollution. The wastewaters at community level in the research area have a typical domestic sewage of COD/BOD5 ratio of 2.23 (STD (0.14). The specific production of CODtot is about 1802(316.7) mg/l which represents about 162.1(21.6) g/c.d. Where, the COD specific production for H1, H2, H3, H4, and H5 are 166.1(14.9), 182.5(29.1), 178.6(13.6), 154.6(32) and 128.8(17.6) g/c.d, respectively. The results also reveal that the main fraction of COD in the raw sewage is particulate (suspended and colloidal), which represented 71.7% of the total COD. The percentage of the CODdis was 28.2%. In addition to COD, the wastewater characteristics at community level in the research area showed that BOD values were somewhat in the range of 652-915 with average value of 809(103) mg/l which represents 73.2(8.9) g/c.d. BOD5 specific production for H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5 are 81.4(5.7) g/c.d, 80.6(9) g/c.d, 76.2(7) g/c.d, 66.2(9.3) g/c.d and 61.4(6.5) g/c.d, respectively. The wastewater characteristics at community level in the research area showed that VFA with average value of 214(35.1) mg/l which represents 7(1.1) g/c.d.

The selected two houses different in the way of clothes wash, one house use traditional way of clothes wash, while the other use the laundry way. The average COD concentration of both samples were 1229(72.8) mg/l with COD/BOD ratio 2.20(0.02), laundry washing of clothes produce more wastewater quantity and more pollution than traditional washing. Average ammonia (NH4+-N) is about 25(13) mg/l, BOD5 specific production is about 558(39) mg/l, total PO4 as P is about 12.6(8.4) mg/l and ortho-phosphate (PO3-4 as P) is about 10.2(7.6) mg/l.