English

Abstract                                               

Municipal wastewater contains about 7% of industrial water and is treated in different treatment systems. The production of industrial Plants mixed with domestic wastewater in the sewerage networks is called sewage. Some industries produce small amounts of water but may contain highly concentrated concentrations of organic or inorganic pollutants.

Among the inorganic pollutants heavy metals vary in concentration of metals and environmental impact. The presence of concentrations of some metals in untreated or treated wastewater exceeds the acceptable limit, which adversely affects the purification efficiency of treatment plants and the quality of treated water. The removal of heavy metals from different wastewater is a field of research that has been lectured by many researches with different objectives and methods of research.

 Results of previous studies showed that activated sludge showed a variation in the level of removal of concentrations of heavy metals, and the quality and concentration of sludge played a role in the adhesion of some heavy metals and organic substances resulting from the metabolism.

The method of removing the heavy metals in domestic wastewater during the treatment process is still contradictory. According to the limits of our knowledge, answers to the potential operational problems caused by the presence of high concentrations of heavy metals and the degree of retardation of the biological process are still unknown. Is there a variation in the tolerance to different treatment systems under the presence of toxic heavy metals?

The lack of local knowledge about the levels and fate of heavy metals is still under development and calls for further research and studies. This research proposal explores the effectiveness of heavy metal removal in different treatment systems, including sludge systems in Beit Dajan (Nablus), Anza (Jenin) and the membrane bioreactor treatment plant in Al-Teereh (Ramallah).

 The effects of various operational parameters including capacitor time, Age of Sludge, and wastewater characteristics will be evaluated.

The results will help to understand the efficiency of activated sludge systems in heavy metals removal, and provide optimized operational conditions, a sustainable wastewater treatment alternative for heavy metal removal, where effluent reuse schemes are planned. The possible impacts on soil and agricultural produce irrigated with heavy metals rich treated water are beyond the scope of this research study.