English

Abstract

In the West Bank especially in Hebron Governorate, in the recent years the number of used household water treatment systems increased rapidly with about 5806 units (PCBs, 2017). This raises the need to study the application of these systems, and to assess their performance compared with the quality standards of the PSI and WHOguidelines.

 

In this study a structured questionnaire targeted a sample of users of these systems and water samples at the inlet and outlet of the most common used water filters (RO and three stages) were taken from different locations in Hebron Governorate; Hebron city, BeitUlla, Sourif and Yatta.The microbial tests includedtotal and fecal coliform and physical chemical analysis includedtotal dissolved solid, pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, carbonate, nitrate and sulfate (WHO, 2011).

 

It is found that the adaption of these systems is not related to a single feature as a reason for this adaption but there are many factors affect the adaption of these systems include negative perception about tap water quality with the availability of the willingness to pay ( Daniel et al., 2018). From the questionnaire It is found the about 40% of the users in Hebron Governorate adapt these systems as they think that municipal water quality is poor due to aesthetical properties like color, taste and odor . Also there is a strong linear relationship between the type of the filter its capital and maintenance cost. And between the satisfaction about water quality produced with the occurrence of the periodic maintenance and between the satisfaction about provider performance with respect to filter maintenance.

 

Based onphysiochemical results of this study, it is found that the tap water from municipal water system is clean and safe according to PSI standards. While drinking water quality at the outlet of water filters lacks for beneficial elements to human body as it produces water with TDS concentration less than 100 mg/l which conflicts with PSI recommendations andmight lead to health problems with long term consumptionfor bones, nervous system and cardiovascular system. Besides, these systems produce soft water with the concentration of CaCo3less than 90 mg/l which may causes leaching of metals like iron and may affectskeletal and cardiovascular health. Re-mineralization is essential for water from these systems but many effortsarerequired for finding systems that produce safe and clean drinking water that meet PSI and WHO standards without additional need for re-mineralization. From biological and physical tests it is found that these systems are subject to biological fouling and scaling so frequent maintenance is essential to ensure obtain water with the same quality over consumption time. Additional attention must be made by the regularity authority to monitor marketing of these systems and raise public awareness about tap water quality, also safety measures that are required to keep obtaining safe and clean drinking water from taps.