Energy is the main engine of life on earth and it is the basis of the progress or backwardness of the nations. The world is facing an energy crisis as a result of the large and growing dependence on conventional energy sources that can be depleted, such as oil, gas and coal. Many countries have tried to overcome energy crisis and achieve energy security by accessing modern and clean energy sources such as renewable energy sources. The Palestine environment has high potential for the application of renewable energy, such as solar energy, wind energy, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the West Bank, there are 6 major transboundary streams that carry huge amounts of rainwater and wastewater from Palestinian areas to Israeli wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) inside the Green Line. The main aim of this research was to study the possibility of hydroelectric power generation from water flowing through the West Bank main transboundary streams in dry and wet seasons; Wadi Al-Samen was taken as a case study.
Two methods have been followed to generate hydropower from Wadi Al-Samen. The first method was to exploit the water flowing into the stream to produce electricity as it is. The second method was to store the water by a reservoir for a certain period of time and then release it to produce electricity. For the first method, four sites were proposed to generate hydropower during the dry and wet seasons. For the second method, three alternatives were proposed to generate hydropower during wet season: storage of 5%, 15% and 25% of the total quantity of water flowing into the stream. While during dry season, it was proposed to generate hydropower based on the natural flow of the stream as it is.
The results showed that: for the first method, the amount of hydropower produced from each location during dry and rainy seasons was (19.2, 13.6, 18.6 and 9.2), (1198, 1208, 2069 and 998) KW per day, respectively. The great increase in hydropower generated in rainy season was due to the additional flow of rain water to the hydropower sites. For the second method, the results showed that the amount of hydropower produced by each alternative during wet season was (1021.2, 2248 and 3065.1) KW per day, respectively, while during dry season, the generated hydropower was (20.75) KW per day.