Summary Palestinians suffer from water scarcity because of the Israeli occupation's control over natural water sources. Thus, there is a shortage of quantities of water which available to them. In addition, the water quality in some Palestinian areas does not conform to international specifications due to pollution, as in the Gaza Strip, and because of salinity, as in Jericho and the Palestinian Jordan Valley. Accordingly, it became necessary for the Palestinians to search for unconventional sources to increase the quantity of water suitable for drinking or agriculture irrigation with the required specifications. Among these unconventional sources is the desalination of water.
Since the Palestinians' experience is recent in this field compared to other countries, the aim of this research was to assess the availability and capability of local resources for the implementation of sustainable desalination system in Palestine, this research focused on the West Bank region. Through this research, two desalination plants were taken as study cases, both were located in Palestinian Jordan Valley: Marj Najah and Zbeidat. Moreover, a designed questionnaire was used in this study for assessing the water desalination plants in Palestine according to experts and workers in the water sector.
The results have shown that there is a general weakness in the ability to establish sustainable desalination plants in Palestine, in spite of the highly demand for them specifically in the Palestinian Jordan Valley. There is a need to increase the academic interest of desalination by Palestinian universities, to find sufficient local expertise to develop the water sector in Palestine. On the other hand, the Palestinian government should support the private sector companies and involve them in water projects to ensure the sustainability of these projects further on. Finally, similar global models have to be studied to learn how the desalination sector work around the world, such as Jordan which has more than 50 desalination plants in the Jordan Valley.